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Our office promotes the implementation of alternative dispute settlement, ie recourse to mediation or arbitration, as one possibility, which clearly allows speed, low cost and equivalents of judgments results resolve a dispute.





Laws and institutions

1     Multilateral conventions

Is your country a contracting state to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards? Since when has the Convention been in force? Were any declarations or notifications made under articles I, X and XI of the Convention? What other multilateral conventions relating to international commercial and investment arbitration is your country a party to?

Greece is a contracting state to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, pursuant to Law No. 4220/1961, ratified without any declarations or reservations, in force since 14 October 1962.

Before that ratification Greece had been a contracting party to the Geneva Protocol of 24 September 1923, pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 4/1926 and, later, to the Geneva Convention of 1927 for the Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, pursuant to Law No. 5013/1931.

The New York Convention replaced the Geneva Protocol of 1923 and the Geneva Convention of 1927 and, therefore, the states that have signed the former are now bound only by it, unlike those states that have not yet signed the New York Convention (eg, the Bahamas, Iraq) that are still bound by the latter.

Greece is also a contracting party to the Washington Convention of 1968 on the settlement of investment disputes between states and nationals of other states (the ICSID Convention), ratified by Compulsory Law 608/1968, in force since 21 May 1969.

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Antitrust & Competition

Antitrust Law – USA

Trusts and monopolies are concentrations of wealth in the hands of a few. Such conglomerations of economic resources are thought to be injurious to the public and individuals because such trusts minimize, if not obliterate normal marketplace competition, and yield undesirable price controls. These, in turn, cause markets to stagnate and sap individual initiative.

Competition law is known in the United States as “antitrust law”. The substance and practice of competition law vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Protecting the interests of consumers (consumer welfare) and ensuring that enterpreneurs have an opportunity to compete in the market economy are often treated as important objectives.

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1915 was enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies and cartels). The Clayton act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, exemptions, and remedial measures.

Statutory provisions and guidelines of the antitrust division.

A plain English guide to Antitrust Laws.

The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act, July 2, 1890, ch. 647, 26 Stat. 209, 15 U.S.C. § 1–7), was the first United States government action to limit cartels and monopolies. It is the first and oldest of all U.S., federal, antitrust laws.

Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890, first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts; it was named for Senator John Sherman. Prior to its enactment, various states had passed similar laws, but they were limited to intrastate businesses.

Summaries of U.S. antitrust cases.

Competition Law – International

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission is an independent Commonwealth statutory authority. It was formed in 1995 to administer the Trade Practices Act 1974 and other acts. The ACCC promotes competition and fair trade in the market place to benefit consumers, business and the community. It also regulates national infrastructure services. Its primary responsibility is to ensure that individuals and businesses comply with the Commonwealth competition, fair trading and consumer protection laws. The ACCC is the only national agency dealing generally with competition matters and the only agency with responsibility for enforcing the Trade Practices Act and the state/territory application legislation.

European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. Competition law, or antitrust as it is known in the United States, regulates the exercise of market power by large companies, governments or other economic entities. In the EU, it is an important part of ensuring the completion of the internal market, meaning the free flow of working people, goods, services and capital in a borderless Europe.

Competition Law and Policy in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru.

Competition policy has emerged as an important aspect of international business. Businesses operating within the Asia Pacific region are no exception. Competition policy is complex and varies greatly from member to member. Some APEC member economies have laws dating back more than a century, some have relatively recent laws, and others still have no laws at all. Recognizing this disparity of conditions among member economies, gathering and collating information and the establishment of a regional database is one essential step towards narrowing the competition information gap among member economies.

The Global Competition Law Centre (GCLC) is a research centre of the College of Europe. It was founded on 1 January 2004, aims to promote rigorous legal and economic analysis of competition policy reforms in the EU and globally, and to provide a discussion forum for academics, practitioners, and enforcement officers in the competition field.

The International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law (IIC), formerly International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law, is a review published by the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law, based in Munich, Germany. There are eight issues per year and the language of publication is English. The review has been published since 1970.

The OFT is the UK’s consumer and competition authority. Our mission is to make markets work well for consumers.

Associations Involved with Antitrust and Competition

The FTC deals with issues that touch the economic life of every American. It is the only federal agency with both consumer protection and competition jurisdiction in broad sectors of the economy. The FTC pursues vigorous and effective law enforcement; advances consumers’ interests by sharing its expertise with federal and state legislatures and U.S. and international government agencies; develops policy and research tools through hearings, workshops, and conferences; and creates practical and plain-language educational programs for consumers and businesses in a global marketplace with constantly changing technologies.

The International Competition Network (ICN) provides antitrust agencies from developed and developing countries with a focused network for addressing practical antitrust enforcement and policy issues of common concern. It facilitates procedural and substantive convergence in antitrust enforcement through a results-oriented agenda and informal, project-driven organization.

In the public part of this site you will find information about the League and how it works, the national groups and upcoming meetings (such as the Congress in Hamburg, Germany, September 25 till 28, 2008), as well as information about the questions addressed by the League. You will find issues of the International Review of Competition Law. There you will also find the most resolutions adopted by the LIDC as well as the archived one’s.

The OECD’s Competition Committee is the world’s premier source of policy analysis and advice to governments on how best to harness market forces in the interests of greater global economic efficiency and prosperity. Bringing together the leaders of the world’s major competition authorities, the Committee is the chief international forum on important competition policy issues.

Website of The Competition Law Association. We are the British Group of the International League of Competition Law (Ligue Internationale du Droit de la Concurrence – LIDC). We promote the study and discussion of the law and commercial practices affecting competition, both nationally and internationally.

Publications for Antitrust and Competition Law

The Competition Law Review is a fully refereed scholarly academic law journal. The CompLRev is distinctive from other competition journals by virtue of having a very strong scholarly basis and focus on particular topical competition law themes. It provides scholars with a forum in which to discuss in detail the complexities and underlying trends in modern competition law.

A prestigious new journal dedicated to competition law and policy, the Journal of Competition Law and Economics publishes articles of a substantial length providing in-depth analysis of developments in competition law, including developments in the US and EU but also covering other regional and national developments. The journal also publishes economic papers relevant to legal theory and practice. While incorporating rigorous economic analysis, these papers address economic issues in a manner readily understandable by lawyers and policy-makers.

Latest news and posts on Antitrust Law.

The antitrust laws of the United States apply in general terms to business abroad, but the specifics of their application present numerous special issues. The first family of issues relates to United States jurisdiction over extraterritorial conduct. The second family of issues relates to exemptions, defenses, and immunities arising from national policies that may be in conflict with the policies underlying the antitrust laws. Other families of issues relate to discovery, remedies, and relief.

This database is aimed at facilitating discussion between academics and practitioners and is devoted to scholarly works-in-progress and to the distribution of other materials on competition law and policy.

Other Resources for Antitrust and Competition Law

Many consumers have never heard of antitrust laws, but when these laws are effectively and responsibly enforced, they can save consumers millions and even billions of dollars a year in illegal overcharges. Most states have antitrust laws, and so does the federal government. Essentially, these laws prohibit business practices that unreasonably deprive consumers of the benefits of competition, resulting in higher prices for inferior products and services.

Official home page with public documents, antitrust case filing and updates.


Banking Law

.Banking Law – US Resources

This Committee offers attorneys of diverse backgrounds common meeting ground to educate themselves and update their knowledge, as well as to exchange ideas search for issues regarding the representation of financial institutions.

The American Bankers Association brings together banks of all sizes and charters into one association. ABA works to enhance the competitiveness of the nation’s banking industry and strengthen America’s economy and communities.

Until the early 1980’s interest rates on bank accounts were regulated and controlled by the national government.

Title 12 — Banks and Banking

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank) is the official export credit agency of the United States. Ex-Im Bank’s mission is to assist in financing the export of U.S. goods and services to international markets.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) preserves and promotes public confidence in the U.S. financial system by insuring deposits in banks and thrift institutions for at least $100,000; by identifying, monitoring and addressing risks to the deposit insurance funds; and by limiting the effect on the economy and the financial system when a bank or thrift institution fails.

The Council is a formal interagency body empowered to prescribe uniform principles, standards, and report forms for the federal examination of financial institutions by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB)

Bankersonline brings key laws and regulations, including all of the Federal Reserve’s “lettered” regulations, in a user-friendly form. Each regulation or law has its own table of contents page. Each section is laid out on a separate page to make them faster to load and easier to print.

The National Information Center (NIC) is a central repository of data about banks and other institutions for which the Federal Reserve has a supervisory, regulatory, or research interest

International Banking Resources

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international organisation which fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks.

The Act is designed to encourage efficiency and growth in the financial industry, increase international competitiveness and domestic competition, and improve the regulatory environment for the sector.

More than 170 nations regulate their economies through central banks. NYU’s Center for the Study of Central Banks was established to study their nature and operations. The Center includes perspectives drawn from law, economics, political science, history, and sociology.

Annual review of structural developments in the EU banking sector. The analysis is based on a wide range of indicators as well as on an exchange and assessment of qualitative information by the Banking Supervision Committee’s (BSC) member organizations.

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 when communism was crumbling in central and eastern Europe and ex-soviet countries needed support to nurture a new private sector in a democratic environment. Today the EBRD uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in countries from central Europe to central Asia.

The main purpose of European Central Bank (ECB) statistics is to support the monetary policy of the ECB and other tasks of the Eurosystem and the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

The European Investment Bank was created by the Treaty of Rome in 1958 as the long-term lending bank of the European Union. The task of the Bank is to contribute towards the integration, balanced development and economic and social cohesion of the EU Member States.

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world.

Online Banking

Dedicated to electronic banking in the Internet and its legal implications.

The Electronic Funds Transfer Association (EFTA) is the nation’s leading inter-industry professional association promoting the adoption of electronic payment systems and commerce.

Many regulations provide consumer protection for both traditional and online transactions. If you have any questions or concerns, first try to get answers from your bank. If you’re still not satisfied, contact the appropriate federal regulator.

The goal of this publication is to inform banking and electronic commerce academics, executives and professionals on principal developments, profit-oriented business architecture, benchmarked practices, compliance, risk and accountability, and future trends in the Internet-based business, management and marketing of governments and industry.

NetBanker is an online finance and banking blog. They cover online banking, person-to-person lending, mortgages, financial industry news and analysis.

Handbooks provide guidance to national banks, service providers, software vendors and bank examiners on procedures for supervising banking activities.

There is a lot you should know about Internet banking. It can save you time, money and effort, but it’s important to protect yourself from potential pitfalls. Tjis site provides information on banking options, different types of online banking, services and advantages, protecting your privacy, “cookies” and privacy, security, regulations that protect consumers, and filing a complaint against a financial institution

Bank Secrecy

America’s Community Bankers is the national trade association committed to shaping the future of banking by being the innovative industry leader strengthening the competitive position of community banks.

Two articles of the Swiss criminal code regulate Swiss bank secrecy: Article 162 takes punitive action against the disclosure of trade secrets or confidential business information. Article 320 deals with occupational confidentiality.

Sec. 103.100 Information sharing with federal law enforcement agencies.

Answers to basic questions that are frequently asked regarding the BSA.

Congress passed the Bank Secrecy Act in 1970 as the first laws to fight money laundering in the United States. The BSA requires businesses to keep records and file reports that are determined to have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, and regulatory matters. The documents filed by businesses under the BSA requirements are heavily used by law enforcement agencies, both domestic and international to identify, detect and deter money laundering whether it is in furtherance of a criminal enterprise, terrorism, tax evasion or other unlawful activity.

Though most people do not know it, financial institutions are required by the federal government to spy on their customers. Congress authorized the Treasury Department to require them to do so in the Bank Secrecy Act.

Counterterrorism Blog, a unique, multi-expert blog dedicated to providing a one-stop gateway to the counterterrorism community.

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